In medicine to record the images of the digestive tract we use the capsule endoscopy. The capsule contains the tiny camera. Its size is very small. The capsule takes the picture inside the gastrointestinal tract when a patient swallows. The primary function is to examine the small areas of the intestine that can not be possible by another endoscopy.
Pill cam is the product by GIVEN IMAGING. It is approved by the European medicine agency.
Pill cam ESO
Pill cam SB
Pill cam colon
Development of the Pill cam
- IDEA GENERATION
- PRODUCT SELECTION
- PRELIMINARY PRODUCT DESIGN
- PROTOTYPING THE DESIGN
- TESTING OF PROTOTYPE
- FINAL PRODUCT DESIGN
Architecture of pill cam
- Optical dome
It has Light receiving window. It is made up of nonconductor material. Prevent infiltration of digestive fluids inside the capsule.
- Lens holder
Lens holder helps to accommodate the lens, helps the lens to fix properly. It avoids dislocation of lens.
Lens is an Integral component. It is located behind light receiving window. Light through window falls on the lens.
- Illuminating LED’s
Consists of six white light-emitting diodes (LED). LED ensure proper lighting for taking pictures.
- CMOS image sensor
It is of 140° field of view. Detects object as small as 0.1 mm
It has the 2 battery with Button shaped. It is made up of silver oxide which is Disposable and Harmless. It works for 8 hrs.
- ASIC transmitter
It is located behind the batteries. 2 transmitting electrodes are present and those are electrically isolated.
It receives data from ASIC transmitter and sends to a data recorder.
Pill cam SB take 50,000 images in 8 hr. i.e., 2 image/sec. It also used for the visualization and monitoring of lesions which may indicate Crohn’s disease not detected by upper and lower endoscopy. It also used for the visualization and monitoring of lesions which may be a source of obscure bleeding and also not detected by upper and lower endoscopy. It may be used for the visualization and monitoring of lesions that may be potential causes of iron deficiency not detected by upper and lower endoscopy.
The PillCam Capsule Endoscopy System with PillCam ESO capsules is intended for the visualization of esophageal mucosa for diagnosis of esophageal disorders.
Pill cam ESO take 2,600 images in 20 min i.e., 14 images/sec .
The PillCam Capsule Endoscopy System with the PillCam COLON capsule is intended for the visualization of the colon for diagnosis of colonic disorders.
SENSOR ARRAY BELT
This sensor array belt has to worn around patient’s waist over clothing. It has data recorder in it which has battery which receives picture from the antennae of the Pill cam and records it which is later displayed on the monitor
- Fasting for 10-12 hours
- No iron pills for 5 days
- Swallow the capsule with few sips of water
- Capsule moves by peristalsis movement
- Patient can leave the center
- After 7-8 hours the patient must return
- Collect images from data recorder and examine it
ADVANTAGES OF PILLCAM
- No side effects
- Accurate pictures(view of 150 degrees)
- High-quality images
- Easy procedure
- High sensitivity and specificity
- No requirement of sedation
- Compared to X-ray, CT-Scan, and normal endoscopy it is more efficient.
- Very expensive
- Gastrointestinal obstruction prevent the free flow of Pill cam
- Face difficulties by Pregnant woman and patients with pacemaker
- No reusable
- Batteries may not last long