No other way is better than explaining these crucial terms, so according to educational universities:
By Cambridge University, research is a detailed study of a subject, especially to discover new information or to understand the subject better.
Whereas the one which I follow is by Australian universities:
Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way to generate new concepts, methodologies, and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes.
Research is considered original when the article that constitutes the data has a perfect report and was conducted by some researcher. A researcher describes their hypothesis or research question and their purpose of study, then in the end the result of the research is reported, but one thing that researchers always discuss or interpret is the result or you can say the possible outcome of it.
What leads to research?
Any idea or notion can lead us to conduct new research. Ideas for research problems and difficulties can arise from a set of sources which could be a theory experience or other research studies.
In our everyday personal or professional lifestyle, we might experience hundreds of problems for which we all want solutions and hence look for one. So consciously or unconsciously we question ourselves through a series of alternatives that we wanted to be answered.
To explain it better here is an example:
- You may prefer a paraben or sulfate-free shampoo and thus wonder if people, in general, prefer the same, to those that have these chemical components in its shampoo. This example is through personal experience.
Theories are also ideas about how one thing relates to others. Theories are factual based information that can lead to, a synthesis of a new theory or hypothesis (something that needs a trial, not been tried or tested).
There are a few ways of displaying these theories.
- According to Keynes’s theory: “that if there is an increase in National Income, there would be an increase in the level of employment and vice versa…”
Therefore theories might be useful in providing interesting data but it can also open a path for alternative queries, which can lead to further research on these topics. One thing that you can jot down is, the result of all researches and its process gives you knowledge.
Now let’s quickly go through the types of methodology that are used while research which will guide us to choose the correct method for our research.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
- Inductive research
- Deductive research
- Descriptive research
- Analytical research
In an Inductive approach for research, researchers or the research begins with the process of collecting data that is closely connected with the topic of your interest on which you want to research. Gathered data collection then leads to our next step for which you have to take a step back to get an overview of your data accumulated, and analyze it. From that analysis try to find a pattern that is common on every point. Inductive research is done on observation, it basically moves from specific observation to broader generalization theory.
For example: In our school time, we have learned a theory that is “Survival of the fittest” in biology this theory was given by Charles Darwin. According to this theory, the best-adapted organism is selected by nature to pass on their traits to the next generation. Darwin observed this phenomenon through a period how evolution happens in any organism. He observed that in many offspring’s they have a different character or theme than their parents, which leads them to sustain their existence for a long period as they survive all the climatic and environmental changes. So here you see first he collected the whole data on his topic or subject then took an overview of whether this happens in every animal’s case or not. Then he searched for similar patterns of who is fighting against nature to retain their existence and are they succeeding in it. After all this, he made a theory, so it’s a pure form of Inductive research.
Deductive research is just the opposite of inductive research, here we choose a theory and test it through several implications of data and information and recheck it. It follows the inverted pyramid rule were from broader generalization we come to a more specific level. Sounds confusing right? Let’s look for some examples to make it clear.
For example, suppose
My friend is Indian. Everyone from India eats spicy food. Therefore, my friend eats spicy food.
Other then this, deductive research is usually used in criminal investigation.
Descriptive research aims to accurately describe a research problem. Descriptive research is a type of research whose aim is basically to describe the characteristics and category of research.
Descriptive research does not fit in the qualitative or quantitative research type, instead, it uses both to define the research topic. It focuses on answering the what, how, where, and when of your research problem rather than why.
Descriptive research is further divided or classified into different types, to understand its approaches:
- Descriptive-Normative survey
Example: Suppose, you are a wholesaler of saree or clothes, then the aspects that you should focus on first is what are the preferences of women in sarees or clothes? When is the right time to keep a good stock for sale? (like during festivals). These are the questions that descriptive research might answer before answering why to pile up the stocks?
Analytical research help in analyzing the complex relationship between variables. As we saw in descriptive research that it gives you the answer to what, how, when, and where, the analytical tells you more about why?. Correct statistics and statistical control are very much needed to conduct meaningful Analytical research. This type of research helps you to analyze information or data, that gives a new idea for understanding the situations on why it is happening and helps further to approve or disapprove a hypothesis.
Example: Its example includes exploring why the value of the Japanese Yen has reduced against major world currencies such as the euro U.S. dollar, and British pound. This is because analytical research can better explain how and why the currency has weakened against the major currencies in the world.
There are a lot more types of research methods, so if you liked and found this article helpful do comment. So that I can write more for you people.