Personality disorders are a combination of extreme personality traits that differ from an average viewpoint. The people who have personality disorders face major problems in their social life. In other words, personality disorders refer to unhealthy mental conditions and hence, unwell ways a person lives by.
The most grave issue about having a personality disorder is that, one might never realise they have it. It is because of the fact that, one considers their way as normal and ordinary. Also, it develops after childhood (mostly, early adulthood). It gets more known after one reaches middle-age period.
Moreover, the cause of such disorders is usually unknown. Mainly, childhood events and genetics play a vital role in one’s personality formation. However, they can also be a major cause for the disorders.
In addition, environmental factors and the surrounding can be a cause too. Hence, the cause can be a combination of genes and environment.
People with personality disorder face problems in dealing with specific aspects. They tend to spoil their relationships and image, because of the extremeness of some traits. Also, they tend to become uncomfortable with themselves frequently.
Here is an overview of personality disorder along with its meaning and some types!
- Everyone has a personality that is different and unique in its own way. A personality is a set of distinct features, traits and characteristics. In other words, it is the way one thinks and behaves.
- With new experiences and changes in the environment, one tends to adapt certain traits.
- Personality is a long-term way of identifying oneself to the world. It is the formation for one’s outlook and perception, as well.
- There are several personality traits. However, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has organised them into a FIVE-FACTOR MODEL. It includes neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In conclusion, ranks in these five broad factors help in evaluating one’s personality.
- A disorder is a disturbance in the systematic and normal functioning. It affects the normal operations and causes abnormalities.
- Mental Disorders are conditions that disrupt the mental performances.
Personality disorder is a mental health disorder. Personality disorders leads to patterned behaviour that is not completely normal. They cause unsystematic ways of emotional response. Moreover, if left untreated for long, they can stick for lifetime. People with personality disorders find it tough to have complete control over themselves. If they get more serious, they can be a cause to other disorders too.
Also, personality disorders are unique because everyone is comfortable with themselves. Therefore, the disorder is left unrecognised and untreated mostly.
There are various personality traits and disorders related to them. In a way to understand them better, ten personality disorders have been classified into three broad clusters.
Here is a brief description of the three!
Cluster A: Suspicious or Odd Behaviour
1. Paranoid Personality Disorder
- People with paranoid disorder have serious trust issues. So, they think everyone as threatening.
- In addition, they have a constant feeling of everybody hating them.
- They see everyone as unfaithful. Moreover, they can be very jealous and angry occasionally.
- It is very common and easy for them to hold grudges for long.
- They face major problem in their day to day lives. People with such a disorder perceive everything as a personal attack.
2. Schizoid Personality Disorder
- People with schizoid personality disorder tend to avoid social interactions. They are not so keen to form personal relationships.
- They come across as introverted people who are cold and distant.
- In other words, they are afraid of close relationships. They prefer detachment over attachment.
- In addition, such people are much into daydreaming.
- People with such a disorder find it hard to accept and express emotion. They do not entertain the company of other people.
3. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- People with schizotypal personality disorder tend to have odd behaviour with speaking.
- They often believe of having magical thinking. In other words, they think they can read minds. However, they find it hard to understand others in reality.
- It is tough for them to stay in close relationships. They get uncomfortable easily.
- They often show flat emotions during conversations.
- People with such a disorder get frequent strange thoughts. Also, anxiety is very common for them.
Cluster B: Emotional or Dramatic Behaviour
4. Antisocial Personality Disorder
- People with antisocial personality disorder tend to be very impulsive. They enjoy breaking norms or regarding others.
- They constantly go through tension, aggression and boredom. Such people are very irresponsible.
- They commit actions without considering emotions of anybody.
- They enjoy manipulating people and lack empathy.
- People with such a disorder can get involved in illegal activities. They are selfish and enjoy risks.
5. Borderline Personality Disorder:
- People with borderline personality disorder tend to be instable. They feel empty inside and fear abandonment.
- They are self-destructive and have extreme mood wings. In addition, such people can have suicidal tendencies.
- They find it hard to have relationships.
- Moreover, they face serious anger issues.
- People with such a disorder feel emotions intensely. Sadness and Anxiety is very common for them.
6. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- People with narcissistic personality disorder have an extreme level of self-importance.
- They tend to be over-sensitive towards their failures or insults. As a result, temper issues are common.
- In addition, they enjoy living in their own fantasies and self admiration.
- They can exploit relationship because of insecurities. Moreover, they enjoy constant attention.
- People with such a disorder have fragile self-esteem. They do not enjoy or appreciate anyone’s success.
7. Histrionic Personality Disorder
- People with histrionic personality disorder tend to be easily influenced.
- They have a constant and extreme need of attention. In addition, such people have strong and excess emotional needs. As a result, they are very needy.
- They consider relationships closer than they really are. In other words, they are extremely sensitive.
- Such people are uncomfortable when they are not the center of attraction.
- People with such a disorder constantly try to draw attention, even through appearance.
Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Behaviour
8. Avoidant Personality Disorder
- People with avoidant personality disorder tend to be hypersensitive to rejections.
- They avoid social interactions as much as possible. Moreover, they need to be certain of being liked to interact.
- Shyness and isolation are very common state for such people. They feel inferior all the times.
- They are extremely afraid of being ridiculed. In other words, they fear embarrassment.
- People with such a disorder feel inadequate mostly. They cannot take criticism well.
9. Dependent Personality Disorder
- People with dependent personality disorder tend to be submissive.
- They require reassurance and advice for everything. As a result, they hate being alone.
- They are not at all confident with anything they do. Such people lack independence.
- They feel they cannot take care of themselves.
- People with such a disorder form relationships quick as and when one breaks.
10. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
- People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder tend to be inflexible.
- They are highly systematic and methodical. As a result, they are stubborn.
- In addition, such people like having control over people and things.
- They require perfectionism in things they do.
- People with such a disorder tend to neglect social and moral aspects.
More about it…
Firstly, it is never too late! There is a lot of possibility for this disorder to be recovered. Secondly, if you find any sign, then always consult a doctor. Thirdly, people around somebody with a disorder, should be supportive. Things can get uneasy but with care, it can be controlled.
Moreover, you can always join a support group. It is always helpful. In addition, maintaining a regular journal can help to cope up.
You should also try meditation and yoga. It will relax and calm you.
Also Read: YOGA FOR MENTAL HEALTH.
In conclusion, personality disorder cannot be left untreated. There is an alarming need to consult a professional, if you or anyone close have it. Moreover, there are different treatments for it. Medications and therapy are used, commonly.
If you have anybody around you who has it, encourage them to see a therapist. And importantly, keep supporting and taking care!
SOURCES REFERRED: NIMH